Jesus: Prophet, Priest, and King

by FLL Editorial Team

瑪竇福音 1:1-17


天主曾向亞巴郎許諾:「地上萬民要因你的後裔蒙受祝福,因為你聽從了我的話。」(創 22:18)
也向達味許諾:「我要使你的親生兒子,榮登上你自己的王位;若你的子孫遵守我的誓言,也遵守我教訓他們的法典,連他們的子孫代代世世,也必定要坐上你的王位。」(詠 132:11-12) 因此耶穌被稱為亞巴郎之子和達味之子,以彰顯天主對二人的承諾均在耶穌身上兌現。

亞巴郎是先知也是司祭(創 15:9,27:1);達味則是君王也是先知。既然耶穌被稱為二人之子,那基於世襲的權利,祂是先知、司祭,也是君王。因此耶穌基督的族譜本身,已在透露天主救世計劃的奧妙。


The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

Abraham became the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers. Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram, Ram the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon, Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab.
Boaz became the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse, Jesse the father of David the king.

David became the father of Solomon, whose mother had been the wife of Uriah. Solomon became the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asaph. Asaph became the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Joram, Joram the father of Uzziah. Uzziah became the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah. Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amos, Amos the father of Josiah. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers at the time of the Babylonian exile.

After the Babylonian exile, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel, Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel, Zerubbabel the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor, Azor the father of Zadok. Zadok became the father of Achim, Achim the father of Eliud, Eliud the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary. Of her was born Jesus who is called the Christ.

Thus the total number of generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations; from David to the Babylonian exile, fourteen generations; from the Babylonian exile to the Christ, fourteen generations.
Matthew 1:1-17

'The face of a man' in Ezekiel 1:10 signifies Matthew, who accordingly opens his Gospel with the human genealogy of Christ. Matthew wrote for the Jews, and in Hebrew; to them it was unnecessary to explain the God which they recognized; but out of necessity to unfold the mystery of the Incarnation.

By this introduction he shows that it is the birth of Christ as a human being that he has undertaken to narrate. Matthew writes, 'The book of the generation of Jesus Christ,' because he knew it was written, 'The book of the generation of Adam' (Gen 5:1) he begins this then, that he may oppose book to book, the new Adam, to the old Adam, for by the new Adam all things were restored which had been corrupted by the old. By saying, 'of Jesus Christ,' he expresses both the kingly and priestly office to be in Him for Jesus, was successor to Moses, the first who was leader of the children of Israel; and Aaron, anointed by the mystical ointment, was the first priest under the Law.

But why would it not have been enough to name one of them, David alone, or Abraham alone? Because the promise had been made to both of Christ to be born of their seed. To Abraham: 'And in your seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.'(Gen 22:18) To David: 'Of the fruit of your body will I set upon your seat.'(Psalms 132:11) He therefore calls Christ the Son of both, to show that in Him was fulfilled the promise to both. Also because Christ was to have three dignities; Prophet, Priest, King; but Abraham was prophet and priest; priest, as God says to him in Genesis, 'Take an heifer etc.' (Gen 15:9); Prophet, as the Lord said to Abimelech concerning him, 'He is a prophet, and shall pray for you.' (Gen 27:1) David was king and prophet, but not priest. Thus He is expressly called the son of both, that the threefold dignity of His forefathers might be recognized by hereditary right in Christ.

So do not consider this genealogy trivial; for truly it is a marvelous thing that God should descend to be born of a woman, and to have as His ancestors David and Abraham.

參考 References:
Catena Aurea (St. Thomas Aquinas)
Commentariorum In Evangelium Matthaei (St. Jerome)
Opus imperfectum in Mattheum (Pseudo-Chrysostom)
Commentariorum In Matthaeum (St. Rabanus Maurus)
Homily 1 on Matthew (St. John Chrysostom)