Posted 3 月 10, 2013 by FLL Editorial Team in
 
 

四旬期靈修資訊 (2013)

Lent-banner

What is Lent?

甚麼是四旬期?

「旬」是「十」的意思,所以四旬期是一個為期四十天的日子,這名字源自拉丁文 Quadragesima,意思是「這四十天」;英文則叫作 Lent ,意思是春天。這是為迎接逾越節 ── 耶穌由死亡逾越到復活 ── 復活節前的準備期。四十日的時間在聖經中有克己、奉獻和準備等意思,例如梅瑟在西乃山上停留了四十天 (出谷紀24:18)。耶穌也在受洗後,到荒野禁食四十天(瑪 4:2),並三退魔鬼的試探。

四旬期在2013年甚麼時候開始?

由 2013 年 2 月 13 日聖灰禮儀 (Ash Wednesday) 開始,到聖週六 2013 年 3 月 30 日結束,不包括星期日,但這種傳統計法並不能精確地配合禮儀改革中為突顯「逾越節三日慶典」 (Holy Triduum) 的重要性,所以現時日曆會把四旬期計算為聖灰星期三到聖週星期四主的最後晚餐為止。不過,四旬期的善工應維持至聖週六的復活節前夕。

四旬期對我們有甚麼意義?

耶穌為我們接受苦難和復活,所以我們必須跟隨祂,一起承擔生命中的苦難,並在這四旬期間,效法耶穌在曠野守齋祈禱,對抗誘惑,加倍祈禱 (如每週五進行「苦路」善工),刻苦作補贖,淨化自己身心準備迎接復活節。

四旬期齋戒有甚麼意義?

教友該在四旬期努力做善工,包括更勤於祈禱、守齋和施捨。當中守齋的意義包括能克己苦身,為自己和別人的罪作補贖,也有助克服邪惡的勢力,正如耶穌曾說,有些魔鬼藉祈禱和禁食才能驅逐(瑪 17:21)。

每年這時候都要守大小齋,其實大小齋是什麼?

每年有兩日是教會指定我們信眾要守大齋和小齋,第一個是聖灰星期三,象徵四旬期的開始,第二個是聖週星期五,即是耶穌的受難日。另外,信眾們在四旬期內每個星期五也該守小齋。小齋 (abstinence) 意思是不吃肉類,不包括魚肉。不吃肉類的用意是讓我們可以做一個犧牲,所以守小齋當然不應該去吃海鮮大餐,但十四歲以下兒童和懷孕或餵哺母乳的母親可例外。大齋 (fasting) 就是吃得不夠飽,比平常吃少一點的意思。通常的量度是三餐 (full meals) 裡面,其中兩餐是半飽。 第一,這象徵克己和犧牲,因為耶穌為我們做那麼大的犧牲,我們都應該犧牲一點和祂共融結合,作為一個回應。第二、齋戒的時候,我們會更加清醒自己。

教宗本篤十六世 2013 年四旬期文告 – 相信仁愛便激發愛德

[中文譯本來自天主教會台灣地區主教團]

「我們認識了,且相信了天主對我們所懷的愛。」 (若壹四 16)

親愛的弟兄姊妹們,

在信德年過四旬期,給我們一個很寶貴的機會,可以默想信德與愛德之間的關係:也就是信仰主耶穌基督以及愛──聖神的果實之間的關係,而這愛能在我們為天主及他人奉獻的道路上引導我們。

一、信德是對天主之愛的回應

我在上任後的首道通諭中,提出了對信德和愛德──這兩個超性德行之間密切關係的一些想法。以聖若望的基本宣講作出發點:「我認識了,且相信了天主對我們所懷的愛」(若壹四 16),我提醒說,「成為基督信徒,不是由於一項倫理選擇,或者一種崇高的理念,而是遇到一個事件,遇到另一位,一個能賦予生命嶄新的視野及決斷性方向的事件……。既然是天主先愛了我們(參若壹四 10),那麼現在愛已經不再是一條單純的『誡命』,而是回應天主來與我們相遇的這份愛」(《天主是愛》通諭 1)。信德就是整個人──包括我們所有的官能,投身於天主啟示給我們那種不求回報及「熱情」的愛,而這份愛在耶穌基督身上全然地顯示出來。與身為愛的天主相遇,不只要有誠心,也需要用理智:「對生活的天主的認識,是一條通向愛的道路,是我們的意志對天主旨意的『順服』,是在愛的整體行動中,結合理智、意志和情感的順服,然而這是一個不斷在進展中的過程,愛永遠不會『終結』,也不會完成」(同上,17)。因此,對所有基督信徒,尤其是所有的「仁愛工作者」來說,都需要信德,因為「在基督內與天主相遇,能激發他們的愛心,向他人敞開心靈。這樣,為他們來說,愛近人不應是一個外在強制的命令,而是出於他們信德的結果,此信德由於仁愛而成為積極的行動」(同上,31a)。

閱讀全文

Message of His Holiness Benedict XVI for Lent 2013

[From Vatican.va]

Dear Brothers and Sisters,

The celebration of Lent, in the context of the Year of Faith, offers us a valuable opportunity to meditate on the relationship between faith and charity: between believing in God – the God of Jesus Christ – and love, which is the fruit of the Holy Spirit and which guides us on the path of devotion to God and others.

Read the full message

湯漢樞機的四旬期牧函:從聖經到耶穌基督

[轉載自天主教香港教區網頁]

主內親愛的弟兄姊妹:

隨著二月十三號聖灰禮儀日的來臨,教會便展開一年一度的四旬期。四旬期的目的是為幫助我們預備心靈,去舊更新,俾能迎接復活節,與主耶穌一起死而復活。四旬期的傳統神修善工有三,即祈禱、守齋及施捨。它們可以幫助我們舉心歸向上主,捨己愛人。

欣逢信德年,為了充份體現四旬期的精神,我們不妨細心回顧一下初期教會如何常常聆聽基督的訓誨,以及見証祂的生平。初期教會的成員均擁有三點特質,即訓導、共融及服務,希臘文稱為didache,koinonia及diakonia。(宗二:42-47)感謝天主,上述三點特質亦顯露在本教區內。

在四旬期間,我們最宜「在福音訓導(didache)的光照下,真誠地反省自己的生活。」(教宗本篤十六世二零一零年四旬期牧函)聖經能加深我們的信德,滋養我們的靈性生命。

閱讀全文

梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議文獻《禮儀》憲章

[From Vatican.va]

四旬期

109 在禮儀中及在禮儀教導中,應明白顯示四旬期的雙重特性,就是特別藉着紀念領洗或預備領洗,並藉着苦行。信友們更熱切的聽取天主的聖言,並專務祈禱,以便準備慶祝逾越奧蹟。為此:
a 四旬期禮儀內有關聖洗的特別要素,應更充分的加以運用;並應斟酌的時宜,將舊傳統中的若干予以恢復;
b 對有關苦行的要素亦然。在教導方面,應對信友的心靈強調罪惡的社會影響,還要強調苦行的本羲,就是惱恨罪惡對天主的侮辱;同時不可忽略教會在作苦行時所擔任的角色,還有為罪人祈禱的迫切需要。

110 四旬期內的苦行,不僅應該是內心的,個人的,而且應該是外在的、社群的。至於苦行的方式,則須按時代與地區的許可,以及信友們的環境去培養,並應由上文第 22 節所指的當權者,加以鼓勵。不過,主受難死亡的聖週五,到處都應遵守的逾越齋戒,必須保持其神聖性,並要斟酌時宜,一直延長到聖週六,使能以高昂豁朗的心情,進入基督復活的快樂。

閱讀全文

English version: Sacrosanctum Concilium (Vatican II council)
The Liturgical Year – Lent (art. 109-110)

更多關於四旬期的資訊 More about Lent

Origin of Lent

All about Lent by James Akin at EWTN.com

Overview of Lenten and Easter Resources by Archdiocese of Toronto

Fasting, Abstinence, Prayer, Almsgiving

Richard Leonard, SJ, reflects on fasting and abstinence during Lent (video)

Paul VI, on fasting and abstinence (Ch. II)

From Ashes to Glory: a way of praying the Examen through Lent with materials by Joseph Tetlow, SJ

Lenten Discipline & Reflections

Roman Stational Liturgy

Lenten Reflections organized by the Office of Formation for Discipleship of the Archdiocese of Toronto

Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) during Lent

Guidelines provided by the Office of Formation for Discipleship of the Archdiocese of Toronto for Implementing the Church’s Vision of Christian Initiation, including RCIA during the Lenten period, i.e. the Period of Purification and Enlightenment

In Lent

[From the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy Principles and Guidelines, Vatican City, December 2001 (In Lent, 124-137)]

124. Lent precedes and prepares for Easter. It is a time to hear the Word of God, to convert, to prepare for and remember Baptism, to be reconciled with God and one’s neighbour, and of more frequent recourse to the “arms of Christian penance”(134): prayer, fasting and good works (cf. Mt 6, 1-6. 16-18).

Popular piety does not easily perceive the mystical aspect of Lent and does not emphasize any of its great themes or values, such a relationship between “the sacrament of forty days” and “the sacraments of Christian initiation”, nor the mystery of the “exodus” which is always present in the lenten journey. Popular piety concentrates on the mysteries of Christ’s humanity, and during Lent the faithful pay close attention to the Passion and Death of Our Lord.

125. In the Roman Rite, the beginning of the forty days of penance is marked with the austere symbol of ashes which are used in the Liturgy of Ash Wednesday. The use of ashes is a survival from an ancient rite according to which converted sinners submitted themselves to canonical penance. The act of putting on ashes symbolizes fragility and mortality, and the need to be redeemed by the mercy of God. Far from being a merely external act, the Church has retained the use of ashes to symbolize that attitude of internal penance to which all the baptized are called during Lent. The faithful who come to receive ashes should be assisted in perceiving the implicit internal significance of this act, which disposes them towards conversion and renewed Easter commitment.

Notwithstanding the secularisation of contemporary society, the Christian faithful, during Lent, are clearly conscious of the need to turn the mind towards those realities which really count, which require Gospel commitment and integrity of life which, through self denial of those things which are superfluous, are translated into good works and solidarity with the poor and needy.

Those of the faithful who infrequently attend the sacraments of Penance and the Holy Eucharist should be aware of the long ecclesial tradition associating the precept of confessing grave sins and receive Holy Communion at least once during the lenten season, or preferably during Eastertide(135).
Read Full Text


FLL Editorial Team