Posted 六月 17, 2013 by FLL Editorial Team in
 
 

山中聖訓:報復

Velázquez: Cristo de San Plácido. Madrid, Prado. Hacia 1632. El cuadro llegó al convento probablemente como donación del protonotario Jerónimo de Villanueva, envuelto en leyendas.瑪竇福音 5:38-42

「以眼還眼,以牙還牙」這法律是為了壓止雙方的仇恨才頒佈的。當一個人想報復,他會否只滿足於把他所受的傷害還給對方?我們不是看見一些人受過一些微不足道的傷害,卻馬上策劃謀殺,對他的敵人做盡一切邪惡的事而仍然不能歇止他的盛怒嗎?面對這種殘酷而無法估量的怒氣,法律用「以眼還眼,以牙還牙」制定了一個界限;這就是說,一個人對另一個人造成了任何傷害,他就要受到同樣的對待。

留意耶穌沒有說「凡人向你索取你就把所有都給他」,祂是說「求你的,就給他」;你只需誠實地給他你所能給他的。若是有人索取金錢去壓迫無辜的人又怎樣呢?我們只需要在我們和他人都沒有受傷害的情形下給他所要求的。

有人也許會認為基督這個命令跟人民的公眾利益有所矛盾;他們說當敵人掠奪他的財產時,這樣做會令他們受苦。我們要明白基督的教導,要在我們的心預備好以後才能遵守。以仁慈待人,不以怨報怨,這些需要忍耐的訓誡,一定要靠我們的意志才能實行。

(本文以英文為準)

Matthew 5:38-42

This law, ‘Eye for eye, tooth for tooth’ (lex talionis), was enacted to repress the flames of mutual hate, and to be a check on their undisciplined spirits. For who when he would take revenge, was ever content to return just so much harm as he had received? Do we not see men who have suffered some trifling hurt, straightway plot murder, thirst for blood, and hardly find evil enough that they can do to their enemies for the satisfying of their rage? To this immeasured and cruel fury the Law puts bounds when it enacts a ‘lex talionis’; that is, that whatever wrong or hurt any man has done to another, he should suffer just the same in return. It enacts a just retaliation, properly due to him who has suffered the wrong. But that mercy forgives any debt, does not make it unjust that payment had been sought. Since then he sins who seeks an unmeasured vengeance, but he does not sin who desires only a just one; he is therefore further from sin who seeks no retribution at all.

Note that Jesus does not say, ‘Give all things to him that asks’, but, ‘Give to the one who asks of you’; that you should only give what you can give honestly and rightly. For what if one ask for money to employ in oppressing the innocent man? What if he ask your consent to unclean in? We must give then only what will hurt neither ourselves or others, as far as man can judge; and when you have refused an inadmissible request, that you may not send away empty him that asked, show the righteousness of your refusal; and such correction of the unlawful petitioner will often be a better gift than the granting of his suit.

Some object that this command of Christ is altogether inconsistent with civil life in Commonwealths; who, say they, would suffer, when he could hinder it, the pillage of his estate by an enemy; or would not repay the evil suffered by a plundered province of Rome on the plunderers according to the rights of war? But these precepts of patience are to be observed in readiness of the heart, and that mercy, not to return evil for evil, must be always fulfilled by the will. Yet must we often use a merciful sharpness in dealing with the headstrong. And in this way, if the earthly commonwealth will keep the Christian commandments, even war will not be waged without good charities, to the establishing among the vanquished peaceful harmony of godliness and righteousness. For that victory is beneficial to him from whom it snatches license to sin; since nothing is more unfortunate for sinners, than the good fortune of their sins, which nourishes an impunity that brings punishment after it, and an evil will is strengthened, as it were some internal enemy.

References:
Contra Faustum, Bk. XIX.25 (St. Augustine)
On the Sermon of the Mount, Bk. 1, Ch. 19 (St. Augustine)
Letter 138, Ch. 2 (St. Augustine)


FLL Editorial Team